Friday, August 19, 2022

wise doctor

Children's summer

Дети каждого третьего россиянина все лето провели дома


По сравнению с прошлым годом дети стали чаще проводить каникулы в других городах России, отдыхать в оздоровительных и школьных лагерях. Число россиян, организовавших ребенку отдых на Черном море, снизилось незначительно. В опросе сервиса по поиску высокооплачиваемой работы SuperJob приняли участие 1600 родителей школьников из всех округов страны.

О том, что ребенок-школьник провел все лето дома или в городе [то-есть, сельское население включено в опрос], рассказал каждый третий опрошенный (33%). Дети 29% родителей жили на даче или в деревне. Обеспечить ребенку отдых на море в этом году удалось 17% россиян. Каждый девятый (11%) отправил своего школьника в оздоровительный лагерь, каждый одиннадцатый (9%) организовал поездку по России. За границей побывали дети 2% опрошенных. Столько же респондентов сделали выбор в пользу школьного лагеря. Еще 6% родителей поделились другим опытом: их школьники побывали у родственников, в санатории, спортивном лагере и т. д.

Нынешнее лето оказалось более интересным для российских школьников, чем планировали их родители в преддверии каникул: съездить на Черное море и побывать в других городах России удалось детям большего количества опрошенных. Чаще, чем в летние каникулы 2021 года, родители рассказывали, что их дети-школьники побывали в других городах России, в оздоровительных и школьных лагерях, реже — на зарубежных курортах.

Место проведения опроса: Россия, все округа
Населенных пунктов: 375
Время проведения: 10—18 августа 2022 года
Исследуемая совокупность: родители детей школьного возраста
Размер выборки: 1600 респондентов


Thursday, August 18, 2022

Is Your Government Ready for Another Pandemic?

With polio now confirmed in New York City's wastewater and monkeypox having spread around the world- albeit with mortality rates remaining low - it appears that disease outbreaks are happening faster and more frequently than before. While greater media attention has certainly heightened awareness, we’re also seeing the ripple effects of a number of factors including population growth, which means more people are living in closer proximity to potentially infected animals, climate change, which is making diseases more severe, and even the decline of vaccine coverage for other diseases over past years, as reported by the OCHA. Not to mention the fact increased trade and travel as well as rapid urbanization - where levels of contact between people is high and living conditions can be unhygenic - are also making transmission easier.

But how ready are the world’s governments for another - unfortunately, fairly inevitable - health crisis? A survey carried out by the OECD in 2021 found that perceptions of government preparedness vary greatly around the world, with a fairly even split of opinions, favoring slightly more positive. People living in Luxembourg and Ireland, for instance, thought more highly of their government’s healthcare strategies, with 69 percent and 60 percent, respectively, saying they thought their leaders would be ready. Just over half of Brits felt the same. In Austria, however, trust on the topic was fairly low, with 29 percent of people saying they thought their government would be ready. Japan came in with 32 percent feeling confident in the government, although a greater share than any other felt ambivalent about the issue - responding that they felt either ‘neutral’ or ‘didn’t know.’

According to the report, public trust in government rise and fell throughout the pandemic, with a show of support for governments at the start, versus later when the death count started to rise. The authors note that the survey’s results likely correspond to the intensity of the pandemic at the time, in November 2021. They add: “It is also worth noting that – in spite of the many challenges governments faced in effectively responding to the economic and health exigencies of the pandemic – this finding suggests that people see governments as having learned from the information gained during this experience.”

The countries surveyed included Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom.Is Your Government Ready for Another Pandemic?

women's worst enemy

фашызд — враг

social practice

Категория «социальная практика» активно используется для изучения социальных явле- ний с конца ХХ в., она позволяет значительно расширить социологический аспект исследований, но для изучения феномена искусственного прерывания беременности она не применялась. Целью статьи стала попытка идентифицировать феномен искусственного прерывания беременности с данной категорией. В статье выделены этапы развития искусственного прерывания беременности, выявлены ее признаки, соотнесены с теми, которые присущи «социальной практике». Автор пришел к выводу, что искусственное прерывание беременности как социальная практика начала формироваться с конца XIX в., что проявилось в увеличении количества отдельных случаев абортов. С 1920-х гг. процедура превратилась в норму для общества в целом.

К середине 1930-х гг. процесс формирования практики завершился, о чем свидетельствует проявление всех характерных для данной категории признаков: устойчивость, воспроизводимость, массовость, наличие смыслового основания. C начала 1940-х гг. искусственное прерывание беременности как социальная практика начала развиваться. Она состоит из ряда компонентов: участники практики, действие практики, способ осуществления процедуры, вид аборта, причины принятия решения индивидом об аборте, факторы влияния на практику, объект влияния практики, изучение содержания которых позволяет прослеживать ее развитие. Изучение этапов формирования данной практики позволило сделать вывод, что распространение абортов в России стало следствием сначала изменения личного отношения к ним отдельных индиви- дов, а с 1920-х гг. – искажения в обществе в целом религиозных, нравственных, этических норм, традиций. Причины, по которым индивид принимает решение искусственного прервать беременность, выходят за рамки социально-экономических условий жизни индивида. Полученные результаты позволяют идентифицировать феномен как социальную практику, что определяет возможность его дальнейшего исследования через данную категорию

М. В. Шелест. Искусственное прерывание беременности как социальная практика: процесс становления в России

Wednesday, August 17, 2022

Bring It Home

As the Covid-19 pandemic, the Russian war on Ukraine and the growing tensions between China and the United States have brutally exposed the vulnerabilities of highly globalized supply chains, more and more companies are reconsidering their position, trying to shorten supply chains and to bring production back home or at least closer, wherever possible (and financially feasible).

While buzzwords such as “onshoring”, “reshoring” or “nearshoring” started to pop up in more and more earnings calls at the onset of the pandemic, many experts thought the excitement for bringing production back home would be short-lived, much like the pandemic itself. However, the coronavirus proved to be a lot harder to contain than many had originally hoped. And, with geopolitical tensions mounting and global supply chain disruptions persisting, the onshoring trend is very much alive.

According to Bloomberg transcripts of U.S. companies’ earnings calls and presentations, onshoring buzzwords are being thrown around more often than ever this year, exceeding the level seen in the early days of the pandemic. And it’s not just words, either. According to a UBS survey of C-suite executives, 90 percent of respondents said they’re company was either in the process or considering moving production out of China, with around 80 percent saying they were considering bringing some production back to the United States.

While higher shipping costs associated with excess demand and surging fuel costs could work in favor of a mass return to domestic production, the strong dollar is pulling in the opposite direction, as it makes labor and other production factors relatively more expensive in the United States.Bring It Home

The state of abortion rights in the US

In Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization (2022), the US Supreme Court reversed longstanding court precedents that protected abortion as a fundamental right. Without that federal baseline, many states are passing restrictive laws that threaten providers and complicate patient care. The legal issues raised by these state restrictions are complex, including questions such as the exterritorial application of state restrictions and federal authority to regulate access to medication abortion. Meanwhile, providers who risk criminal or civil penalties for violating these laws may be deterred from providing services to those seeking care, including for ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages. State variations are dramatic, with some states taking steps to strengthen their abortion protections while others are eliminating abortion access even in situations of rape or incest. As dire as these developments are, it is hoped that they can serve as a wake-up call heard worldwide, to avoid complacency and maintain vigilance to protect abortion rights.

Martha F. Davis
First published: 11 August 2022
https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.14392

This article [если кому удастся преодолеть пэйвол, пришлите, пож] has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi:10.1002/ijgo.14392

Tuesday, August 16, 2022

Europe: An Age-inclusive Society?

Age-inclusive Society?
Compared to the other regions covered in these four JPA special issues, the countries of Europe – including here both Western Europe and the European countries of the former Soviet Union - are relatively homogeneous in many respects that matter for the lives of their older populations. Thirty or forty years ago differences between east and west, and north and south, were more apparent than they are now. Major differences remain, however, and to a European, these will loom large. These differences are particularly marked between the Western European members of the European Union and the European countries of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. These countries, together with a handful of others in the east and south-east of the region, are outliers in respect of characteristics such as household income, pension generosity, and the quality of health care that have manifest consequences for the well-being of older people. By most measures, older people in Sweden are better off than older people in Romania or Serbia, and even more so in the European countries of the former Soviet Union. The Swedes live longer and in better health, they have higher incomes, and are beneficiaries of a mature welfare state with well-funded social care.

по моей имхе: собака порылась в лругом месте, но вэлфэр так вэлфэр
дальше читать по ссылке

The Lifelines Cohort Study: A rich data source for demographers

by LLUÍS MANGOT-SALA & KATHARINA RUNGE 
27 juni 2022 | DEMOS jaargang 38, nummer 6 - juni 2022

Population-based cohort studies are important for causal analyses between demographic events and health-related outcomes. The University of Groningen has been building the Lifelines Cohort Study, which offers rich possibilities for cross-fertilization between demographers and biomedical researchers. A primer for the uninitiated.


The Lifelines Cohort Study is a large, prospective population-based cohort study and biobank, examining the biomedical, socio-demographic, behavioural, physical and psychological factors contributing to the health and disease of 167,729 individuals living in the three Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Between 2006 and 2013, eligible participants between 25 and 50 years of age were recruited through their general practitioner. They were also asked to indicate whether their family members (parents, partner, children, parents-in-law) would be willing to participate. Additionally, other interested individuals could self-register. This resulted in a three-generation cohort of 15,000 children (0-18 years), 140,000 adults (18-65 years), and 12,000 older adults (65+ years).

Lifelines offers numerous possibilities for demographic research: it contains rich sociodemographic information (e.g., partner status, employment status, educational attainment), as well as life-course events, such as moving house, starting (or ending) a relationship, having a child, or finding (or losing) a job. Furthermore, Lifelines is particularly strong in the assessment of health behaviours and outcomes: from alcohol consumption, dietary patterns, total- and domain-specific physical activity to biological markers, chronic diseases and even genetic information. Thus, a wide range of research questions on the association between life transitions and health (behaviours) can be answered using the Lifelines study.

Furthermore, Lifelines offers a very large sample, which contains almost 10% of the population of the three northern provinces of the Netherlands and has been shown to be broadly representative of the whole population. Moreover, it is an ongoing cohort study containing already five waves of observations – and a sixth one being gathered-, which allows a wide range of longitudinal analyses. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the “Lifelines COVID-19” sub-cohort (n=76,795) was developed, in order to assess the attitudes towards the lockdown regulations, and health (behaviours) of the observed population, with a total of 24 waves of data gathered between March 2020 and July 2021. Numerous studies focussing on the association between life events and health (behaviours) using Lifelines have been published recently. For instance, the association between unemployment trajectories and alcohol consumption patterns was studied. Further, it was investigated whether metabolic syndrome development – a risk factor for subsequent onset of type two diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease – differs by occupational groups or changes in employment status among older workers. In turn, the COVID sub-cohort was used to analyse the impact of the lockdown measures on alcohol consumption patterns. Last but not least, Lifelines data can be linked to external data sources, such as register data from Statistics Netherlands.

The Social Situation

Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States


On December 18 2008 the UN General Assembly heard a strong declaration drafted by France and The Netherlands on behalf of the European Union and co-sponsored by sixty-six countries from all regions. It called for the global decriminalization of homosexuality and condemned human rights violations based on sexual orientation or gender identity. 

In the European Union Article 13 of the EC Treaty prohibits any discrimination based on sexual orientation and the EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights is the first international human rights charter to explicitly include the term “sexual orientation”. The legal study we published in June 2008 shows that 18 EU Member States already provide quite comprehensive protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In July 2008, a further step has been made when the European Commission proposed stronger EU wide protection against discrimination on all grounds. 

The social situation, however, is worrying. In recent years a series of events in EU Member States, such as the banning of Pride marches, hate speech from politicians and intolerant statements by religious leaders, have sent alarming signals and sparked a new debate about the extent of homophobia and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual and transgendered (LGBT) persons in the European Union. Such events led the European Parliament to adopt in 2005 a resolution condemning homophobia and sexual orientation discrimination.

Two years later in the summer of 2007 the European Parliament asked the newly established Fundamental Rights Agency to develop a comprehensive comparative report covering all EU Member States on the situation regarding homophobia and sexual orientation discrimination. In response the Agency carried out a large scale legal and social research project during 2007 and 2008.

This comprehensive report composed of two parts, a legal and a social analysis, is presented to the European Parliament and its Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs as evidence for actions needed in order to respect, protect and promote the fundamental rights of LGBT persons across the EU.

The social analysis contained in this publication is based on data and contextual information contained in country reports for all EU Member States. Unique material was gathered through fieldwork interviews with LGBT NGOs, Equality Bodies and public authorities in all Member States and a questionnaire survey of stakeholders. This new data has been combined with a thorough examination of existing academic studies and Eurobarometer surveys to develop the second part of our report, a comprehensive social analysis that complements the FRA’s legal analysis released in June 2008.

The work shows that the current human rights situation for lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transsexuals and transgender persons is not satisfactory. Many LGBT persons experience discrimination, bullying and harassment, while, more worryingly, occurrences of physical attacks were also detected: Derogative words are used for gays and lesbians at schools. Harassment can be an everyday occurrence at the workplace. Relationships often lack the ability to secure one another as full legal partners. At retirement homes, awareness of LGBT persons’ needs is rare. Under these circumstances ‘invisibility’ becomes a survival strategy. In a European Union that bases itself on principles of equal treatment and non-discrimination legislation this is unacceptable. 

What needs to be done? 


Combating fundamental rights violations effectively requires first of all a firm political commitment to the principles of equal treatment and non-discrimination. Political leaders at EU and national level need to take a firm stance against homophobia and discrimination against LGBT and transgendered persons contributing in this way to a positive change in public attitudes and behaviour. 

Secondly, it requires good knowledge of the situation based on robust data guiding the development of evidence based policies and actions. This research represents an important positive step in this direction. But equality authorities and other specialised bodies in many Member States still need to develop data collection mechanisms, promote scientific research, and actively encourage LGBT people to come forward and lodge complaints on incidents of discrimination. 

In the light of the findings of this social analysis, the Agency welcomes the European Commission’s Proposal for a Council Directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. This new Directive would extend the protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation beyond the area of employment and thus address some of the key issues emerging from this report. The opinions contained in this report provide EU institutions and the Member States, as our Regulation requires, with the necessary assistance and expertise in order to support them when taking measures or action within their respective spheres of competence to fully respect fundamental rights.

In closing I would like to thank for their work the staff of the Agency, Caroline Osander, project manager from the Danish Institute for Human Rights , and project manager, Mikael Keller, consultant Mads Ted Drud-Jensen from COWI .

Morten Kjaerum Director, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Monday, August 15, 2022

modern British

Британия первой в мире одобрила вакцину против двух вариантов коронавируса


Великобритания первой в мире одобрила двойную вакцину, которая действует и против первоначального варианта ковида, и против нового варианта "Омикрон".


Усовершенствованная вакцина, разработанная американской компанией Moderna, будет предложена в качестве бустерной прививки уже этой осенью и обещает дать дополнительную защиту от разных штаммов вируса. В первую очередь вакцинироваться будут люди из группы риска и все, кому за 50.

Первые вакцины от коронавируса были разработаны сразу несколькими компаниями в рекордно короткие сроки - через считанные месяцы после того, как в конце 2019 года в Китае были выявлены первые случаи заражения.

Но с тех пор вирус многократно мутировал, и появились новые его варианты, способные обходить иммунную защиту, которую дают вакцины, в результате чего во всем мире наблюдаются продолжаются новые, уже не столь смертоносные, но по-прежнему опасные вспышки заболевания.

"Специально заточенная вакцина"


Вакцина компании Moderna призвана бороться как с первоначальным вариантом коронавируса, так и с первым штаммом "Омикрона" (BA.1), который появился прошлой зимой. Эту вакцину называют также бивалентной, поскольку она нацелена сразу на два варианта ковида.

Агентство по регулированию лекарственных средств и изделий медицинского назначения (MHRA) Великобритании после изучения результатов клинических исследований (вакцина была испытана на 437 пациентах и доказала свою безопасность и повышенный уровень защиты от заражения ковидом) дало добро на применение этой вакцины для взрослых.

"Первое поколение вакцин от ковида, применяемой в Британии, продолжает оставаться важной защитой от этого заболевания и спасает жизни, - подчеркивает исполнительный директор MHRA доктор Джун Рэйн. - А бивалентная вакцина является специально заточенным инструментом для защиты нас от ковида по мере того, как вирус продолжает мутировать".

Впрочем, несмотря на доказанную улучшенную защиту от известных вариантов, никто не может с уверенностью предсказать, что нас ожидает в ближайшие месяцы, и насколько хорошо проявит себя новая улучшенная вакцина.

В общей сложности осенняя бустерная прививка будет полагаться примерно 26 млн жителям Британии. В первую очередь планируется делать повторные прививки работникам системы здравоохранения и социального обеспечения, которые потенциально контактируют с большим числом людей, а также тем, у кого изначально есть проблемы со здоровьем или ослаблена иммунная система.

Moderna обещает, что к концу года поставит в Британию 13 млн доз.


Moderna - не единственная компания, которая занимается усовершенствованием своих вакцин. Pfizer, к примеру, также разрабатывает новую вакцину, эффективную против варианта "Омикрон"

for the first time

More new mothers over 40 than under 20 in Wales


The age of motherhood is shifting relentlessly upward

The number of women giving birth aged over 40 has overtaken the number under 20 years of age for the first time.


The change is part of a general rise in maternal age, with more births also among 35-39 year olds than 20-24 year olds for the first time.

A third of births in 2021 were to women aged 30 to 34, the largest category, figures from the Welsh government show.

A health expert said policies would need to be put in place if governments wanted people to have children earlier.

Since the turn of the millennium, there has been a steady downwards trend in births among younger women.

In 2001, just over 10% of births in Wales were to those aged 19 and under. This number has fallen every year since 2004, with last year's figures showing just 2.8% of births were to teenagers.
Increased education and career roles are big factors in later motherhood

However, it is still the case that in certain areas, teenage motherhood remains a normalised experience for a significant number.

Although figures from the 2021 census show the population of Wales and England has grown since the previous one a decade before, it also shows that the population as a whole - like its mothers - is getting older, with the percentage of people aged over 65 at 21.3%, up from 18.4% in 2011.

Wales has a lower number of under-15s than any part of England, except the south-west, at 16.5%, which has implications for future populations both in terms of looking after today's expanding numbers of elderly and for the future impact on workforce size.

Is this something society should be concerned about looking to the future?

Wales is catching up with birth trends elsewhere, Prof Jacky Boivin says

Prof Jacky Boivin, a professor in health psychology at Cardiff University, said one of the clear impacts of moving towards an older age of motherhood is that women have fewer children overall.

She said: "Wales is catching up to the rest of the world. These are trends that have been happening in other countries and it's just taken a little longer in Wales.

"As people get older and they postpone having children, the number of children they have drops off. It's rare that people who want to have a child will decide not to have a child at all; they'll have fewer children.

"That's the impact of waiting a long time."

She said there were multiple factors contributing to the rise of older mothers.

"It takes longer to be in education and therefore people kick the can of parenthood [further down the road] and that could be just education per se takes a long time, or it could be the choices people are making, so certain courses are more difficult to make more compatible with parenthood," she said.

"Because education is time intensive and more people are going through higher degrees, and those are also time intensive, then more people are postponing having children.

"People want their career to be at the right stage in order to start having children and ostensibly it's just for stability, especially for women, because they could lose opportunities for advancement or if they're out of the market, completely lose opportunities for training and so on."

The changing role of women had meant more options for them might also make having children a harder choice than it once was.

And, with the increased likelihood that women are equally or more educated than men, finding a suitable partner can be a barrier, as traditionally women like to "marry up", according to the professor.

"As women have become more and more educated, there are fewer men to marry up to, and so we need a cultural shift in the fact that women ought to marry up. There's no need for this now anymore but it still exists," she explained.

Are screens stopping young people having sex?


Young people have lost opportunities to socialise because of increased time online

The cost of childcare in the UK could also be a factor.

"In countries where you have very liberal policies about childcare, where you get the money at an early age, like in Scandinavia under the age of three, more women will have children sooner," said Prof Boivin.

"But in countries like Germany where they don't provide any childcare until the baby is five, it's because they have a pro-natalist policy that says you should have your children at an early age and we want the mother to stay home, basically.

"So obviously, these women are even more likely to postpone for reasons to do with that."

At the other end of the age spectrum, early stage research being done at the Vienna Institute of Demography is pointing to two things, Prof Boivin says: one being the relative ease of access to contraception for teenagers to help them avoid unwanted pregnancy.

The other will come as no surprise to parents of teenagers everywhere.

"Young people have got out of the socialisation style that could lead to sexual encounters and unplanned births, basically which is usually when we say less than 20 is what we're thinking about," she said.

"[My colleague in Vienna] relates that back to screen time and a loss of opportunity for young people to meet, and to want to meet."

What are her solutions to encourage more people to have children earlier?

"We need to destigmatise things like solo parenthood or sufficient policies like being a parent while in [higher] education," she said.

"There may need to be policies around that facilitate people starting early, despite not having reached their career stages and not completed their education."

World population (live)

8,009,455,671 Current population

4,041,212,445 Current male population (50.5%)
3,968,243,226 Current female population (49.5%)
99,764,676 Births year to date
233,055 Births today
38,685,541 Deaths year to date
90,371 Deaths today
0 Net migration year to date
0 Net migration today
61,079,135 Population growth year to date
142,684 Population growth today



Sunday, August 14, 2022

Falling Gas Prices Offer Pain Relief at the Pump

Thanks to weaker demand and a sharp decline in global oil prices, gas prices in the United States have come down noticably from their recent highs, offering some much-awaited pain relief at the pump. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the average price of one gallon of regular (all formulations) fell to $4.04 on August 8, down almost 20 percent from its June peak of $5.01. On August 11, the national average even dropped below $4 for the first time since March, according to data compiled by AAA.

Before the latest decline, gas prices had surged by more than 50 percent since the beginning of the year, leaving millions of Americans who rely on their car with unprecedented pain at the pump.

The previous record, dating back to July 2008, was first surpassed on March 14 following the Russian invasion of Ukraine. After the initial shock, prices briefly cooled, but as embargoes of Russian oil were put in place in the U.S. and later in the EU, prices started climbing again. The U.S. leadership, like the governments of other countries that are embargoing Russian energy, have been looking for alternative sources of fuel, but significant amount of surplus shipments have been hard to come by.IFalling Gas Prices Offer Pain Relief at the Pump

Saturday, August 13, 2022

hard women's lot

ябы смотрел наоборот: сначала вторую кортинку

theorizing singlehood

Catholic Intimacies

Negotiating Contraception in Late Communist Poland


Agnieszka Kościańska, Agata Ignaciuk, Agata Chełstowska
First published: 08 May 2022 https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9809.12861

The authors would like to thank the reviewers and Joanna Baines. This article is a result of the research project “Catholicising Reproduction, Reproducing Catholicism: Activist Practices and Intimate Negotiations in Poland, 1930–Present” (principal investigator Agnieszka Kościańska), funded by the National Science Center, Poland (Opus 17 scheme, grant number 2019/33/B/HS3/01068). The authors are also grateful to the members of the Scientific Research Network (WOG) “Medicine and Catholicism since the late 19th Century” funded by Research Foundation – Flanders for their comments and support. Finally, the authors would like to thank the University of Granada for covering the Open Access fee.
[Correction added on 11th Jun 2022, after the first online publication: The sentence acknowledging the University of Granada for covering the Open Access fee was added.]

The majority of people in Poland self-identified as Catholic throughout the second half of the twentieth century. Despite the Polish Episcopate's unanimous rejection of contraception as immoral and sinful, a considerable proportion of Polish Catholics utilized family planning techniques and technologies explicitly banned by their institutional Church. This article uses personal narratives to show how Polish Catholics negotiated their use of Church-authorized and Church-banned family planning methods with their lived experiences of faith in a communist state where both abortion and contraception were legal. We explore the strategies of interpretation, relativisation, and (selective) rejection through which Catholics who self-identified as “practising” approached birth control as a social issue and an individual practice and show how communist secular approaches to birth control contributed to extending the scope of Catholics' agency in the realm of reproductive decision making.

Abortion in the United States

A Threatened Essential Procedure


Rachel B. Rapkin
Published Online:8 Aug 2022 https://doi.org/10.1089/gyn.2022.0062.editorial

It is impossible to practice obstetrics and gynecology right now without the incessant thought in the back of one's head: “What happens now that Roe v. Wade has been overturned?” I would like to extend an enormous Thank You to Mitchel S. Hoffman and the Journal of Gynecologic Surgery, for recognizing the importance of discussing abortion as essential, safe medical care by welcoming this Special Issue for publication. With the recent Dobbs decision by the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) that ultimately overturned Roe v. Wade, many physicians and patients are facing what is to be a new reality—one in which abortion is only accessible to patients living in certain states or to patients with the resources to travel to those states.

Abortion is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures among reproductive-age women, with more than 250,000 performed in 2019. Despite this, many physicians do not provide abortions routinely, and abortion remains a highly regulated procedure. In this Special Issue dedicated to abortion, I hope readers will come to understand the legal history of abortion and what has led us to the current state of affairs, wherein legislators across the country are limiting access to this essential medical procedure. I also hope to frame abortion as a medical procedure, which, like all procedures, has risks, benefits, anesthesia considerations, and special situations in which the procedure may carry additional surgical considerations.

In her article on the history of abortion, Whittum describes the history of abortion regulations, highlighting the sharp increase in the last decade (pp. 000–000). While antiabortion laws predate the 1800s, history has shown that regulations did not actually stop abortions from occurring, rather, they led to an increase in illegal—and therefore often unsafe or criminalized—procedures. Only 1 decade ago, a woman living in Ireland was denied an abortion while experiencing a 17-week septic miscarriage, and she ultimately died as a result. The response was an international outcry and eventual legalization of abortion through the Health (Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy) Act of 2018.

While Christian countries (such as Ireland) are expanding abortion access, the United States has been restricting access further. During first 3 months of 2022, 519 abortion restrictions were introduced in 41 states. While the final SCOTUS ruling on the 15-week Mississippi abortion ban, Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, was released in June 2022, a draft majority opinion leaked in early May showed that the SCOTUS was poised to overturn Roe v. Wade, which made abortions illegal in half of U.S. states.

Despite the passage of unprecedented numbers of abortion restrictions in the past year, the majority of Americans believe abortion should be legal in some or all circumstances. Rich and colleagues ethical discussion on abortion leads to the ultimate conclusion that abortion is a “moral good,” and that physicians providing these services should be lauded (pp. 000–000). By providing abortions, doctors are not only recognizing patients' autonomy, but also providing economic opportunities for such patients and creating improved health outcomes. As obstetricians/gynecologists, we see the toll pregnancy takes on our patients. We see the joy of delivering healthy, desired babies, but we also witness the anguish that abnormal and unintended pregnancies cause. We learned from The Turnaway Study that patients who attempt but were unable to obtain desired abortions faced risks—including eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, and death associated with pregnancy—that they would not have been subjected to if these patients were able to obtain abortions. As physicians, we have a moral imperative to help our patients live their healthiest lives, and we can do so by helping our patients avoid these preventable pregnancy-related outcomes.

While most obstetrician/gynecologists are well-versed in the risks associated with pregnancy, many of these clinicians may not be as familiar with the risks associated with abortion. In their article on abortion safety, Ralph, Norkett, and colleagues point out how incredibly safe abortion is, with a mortality rate of 0.3 per 100,000 at under 8 weeks, when the majority of abortions are performed (pp. 000–000). Because most complications are rare, many obstetrician/gynecologists may not be familiar with them. This review details the diagnosis and management of these complications.

Rarely, complications can be attributed to abnormally implanted pregnancies. Harken and Russo discuss some of these uncommon locations for pregnancy implantation, detailing both diagnostic criteria and management options (pp. 000–000). While rare, cesarean, cervical, and interstitial pregnancies are increasing in frequency, and recognition is important to avoid complications in patients presenting for abortion and other early pregnancy services.

The final article in this series, by Cansino and Brown, details anesthesia considerations for abortions (pp. 000–000). Anesthesia options can range from local anesthesia with accompanying verbal support to general anesthesia. Particularly, as states face restrictions and all-out bans on abortions, it will be essential for more physicians to begin to provide abortion services. Understanding anesthesia options will be key to increasing abortion provision.

We appreciate the opportunity to present abortion as an essential component of reproductive health care. This series has, we hope, shown that abortion, like many other gynecologic procedures, is extremely safe, and reviewing the rare complications can prepare us better to manage them when they do occur. Understanding abortion regulations from a historical lens allows us to understand better how we come to find history repeating itself.

In addition to the topics presented in this special issue, new questions will arise now that SCOTUS ultimately overturned Roe v. Wade. First, what happens to patients who are unable to obtain abortions? A 2021 study demonstrated that states enacting more abortion restrictions had higher total maternal mortality rates—a troubling finding that is likely to be replicated as more states create earlier gestational limits and total bans. There is concern that this will have a disproportionate impact on black women, who already have a threefold higher risk of dying in pregnancy than do white women. How can we help traverse the socioeconomic barriers that prevent patients from accessing safe, legal abortions, and therefore decrease their overall risk of mortality? Second, what happens to all of our trainees? Currently, access to abortion training is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirement for residency graduation; however, with half of U.S. states banning abortions, how will our trainees learn to perform them, and will they be less likely to choose to train in states where abortion access is restricted?

It is unclear what the future holds for abortions in the United States. One thing is clear—abortion is a safe, necessary medical service. I hope that this series encourages all clinicians who legally can provide services to begin doing so, as we attempt to continue providing the high-quality gynecologic care our patients deserve.

Страницы не указаны (pp. 000–000), потому что журнал ещё не вышел

Anti-abortion Activism in Poland and the Republic of Ireland

c.1970s–1990s*


by 
Sylwia Kuźma-Markowska, American Studies Center, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Laura Kelly, School of Humanities, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

We are grateful for the support of our funding bodies; Sylwia Kuźma-Markowska's research is a result of the research project “Catholicising Reproduction, Reproducing Catholicism: Activist Practices and Intimate Negotiations in Poland, 1930 — Present” (principal investigator Agnieszka Kościańska), funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (Opus 17 scheme, grant number 2019/33/B/HS3/01068) and Laura Kelly's research was funded by a Carnegie Trust for The Universities of Scotland Research Incentive Grant. We would also like to thank the “Catholicizing Reproduction, Reproducing Catholicism” research team (Jędrzej Burszta, Agata Chełstowska, Agata Ignaciuk, Natalia Jarska, Agnieszka Kosiorowska, Agnieszka Kościańska, and Natalia Pomian) for their helpful comments on an earlier draft. Finally, we are grateful to members of the KU Leuven Medicine and Catholicism since the Late 19th Century network. In particular we would like to thank the special issue editors, as well as Tinne Claes, Yuliya Hilevych, and Agata Ignaciuk for their valuable comments on earlier drafts and the three referees for their useful feedback.

This comparative article explores anti-abortion activism in Poland and Ireland from the period of the 1970s to the early 1990s. Drawing on a range of archival and printed sources, it sheds light on the Polish and Irish anti-abortion movements as a part of transnational anti-abortion efforts and underscores the importance of studying such phenomena transnationally, in a comparative perspective. We argue that despite political, social, and legislative differences that characterised both countries during this period, several pertinent parallels existed between Polish and Irish anti-abortion activism. As we show, both movements relied on transnational anti-abortion networks and discourses, employed medical knowledge to legitimise their efforts, and represented women undergoing abortion as victims.